Cancer and Oncology
Jul 31, 2023
Agriculture and Allied Sciences
Jun 28, 2023
Commercial ripening is an essential part of fruit business, as ripe fruits are not suitable for long storage due to their fast-decaying nature. Therefore, fruit traders pick unripe fruits and distribute early, thereafter different methodologies are used to fasten the ripening process of fruits. The present study is aimed at investigating the efficacy of the use of banana peel as a ripening agent for its fruit. Ripe banana peel and unripe banana were obtained from Anyigba market in Kogi state, Nigeria. The peels were weighed (25g, 50g, and 100g) and subsequently bagged with 5 unripe bananas (about 118g each), including control (without banana peel), all in triplicates and stored in a dark cupboard for a period of 96 hours. One banana from each replicate was assessed for sugar content and texture as ripening parameters after every 48 hours. The results revealed that the bananas within treatment groups were riper with significantly (p < 0.05) higher sugar content (117.70 ± 5.67, 119.59 ± 14.44 and 104.98 ± 14.26 mm/dL at 25g, 50g and 100g respectively) than the control (35.90 ± 12.90a mm/dL). Also, banana fruits treated with banana peels were significantly lower in texture (4.25 ± 0.55b, 5.65 ± 1.15b and 4.50 ± 0.10b cm at 25g, 50g and 100g respectively) than the control (10.65 ± 0.15a cm). From the study it can be concluded that, banana peels hastened the ripening process of banana and may be possibly exploited by local farmers as a cheaper and eco-friendlier method of ripening bananas.
Apr 28, 2023
Mar 31, 2023
Pain is the most common symptom which brings a patient to the hospital. It is an unpleasant sensory or emotional experience that may or may not involve tissue damage. Understanding the mechanisms of pain is vital for the proper management of pain. Pain can be divided into acute and chronic pain on the basis of duration. Pain mechanisms are Nociceptive, Neuropathic, Nociplastic, and Psychogenic. Simple medications like acetaminophen can manage pain. However, uncontrolled pain may require opioids. Chronic and persistent pain may require pain management as per the WHO Ladder.
Mar 13, 2023
The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted Namibia's public sector pharmaceutical supply chain. This study aimed to investigate the strategies for mitigating pharmaceutical supply chain disruption during COVID-19 using Central Medical Stores Namibia as a case study. The study employed a case study design to explore the research area intensively. Unstructured interviews were conducted with seven pharmacists from Central Medical Stores who were purposively selected. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis with the aid of ATLAS.ti software. Seven (7) pharmacists working at Central Medical Stores were included in this study. The participants highlighted various thematic issues reflecting the impact of COVID-19 on medicines procurement, access and distribution within the healthcare system. These themes included managing the supply chain during the COVID-19 pandemic; COVID-19 pandemic-induced supply chain challenges; Approaching supply chain challenges; medicines shortages; and looking into the future. The study found that there needs to be government intervention to encourage local manufacturing, international intervention to prevent the hoarding of pharmaceuticals by rich nations, adoption of long-term procurement contracts, establishing of good communication with suppliers, having a sufficient budget for pharmaceuticals, training employees in supply chain management and adequate storage space in order to mitigate pharmaceutical supply chain challenges at the Central Medical Stores during COVID-19.
Jan 28, 2023
Proceedings of the 45th Environmental Mutagen Society of India (EMSI) Annual Meeting and International Conference on “Environmental Mutagenesis and Toxicogenomics: Human Health Perspectives”, organized by the Department of Zoology, AMU, Aligarh, India, from January 28 to 30, 2023.
Toxicology and Pharmacology
Nov 24, 2022
Despite the implementation of pharmacovigilance centers in developing countries and the institution of Therapeutic Committees at different healthcare delivery levels, the use of official medicine safety surveillance tools among healthcare workers is not widespread. In order to provide evidence on the knowledge and practice of healthcare professionals in the public sector on the use of medicine safety reporting tools, a cross‐sectional survey using a self‐administered questionnaire to assess the use of medicine safety surveillance tools amongst healthcare workers in Eenhana State Hospital was carried out. Data from the questionnaires were entered into the statistical package Epi Info® version 7 for analysis. About fifty percent of the healthcare workers in this study have identified at least one adverse drug reaction (ADR) in their professional practice. In contrast, only 29% reported ADR using at least one officially prescribed medicine safety reporting tool. The nursing cadre seems to have the least knowledge of medicine safety surveillance tools and pharmacovigilance practice. Pre-registration healthcare workers and continuing professional training for registered healthcare workers must be strengthened to encourage the use of medicines safety surveillance tools, in particular, and pharmacovigilance, in general.
Oct 27, 2022
Chronic Kidney Disease
The study aims to determine the prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and its risk factors in patients with Metabolic Syndrome in a tertiary care center in India. It was a hospital-based prospective observational study where NCEP ATP III CRITERIA was used to diagnose patients with Metabolic Syndrome, and CKD was defined according to KDIGO Guidelines. Out of 172 patients with Metabolic Syndrome, CKD was seen in 52 patients, of which 29 were males and 23 were females, so the prevalence of CKD in Metabolic Syndrome patients was about 30.23%. (52/172) P Value = 0.0000204. In our study, the prevalence of hyperglycemia in CKD patients with Metabolic Syndrome was 24.41% (42/172) P Value = .0011. The prevalence of obesity was 19.18% (33/172) P Value = .00844. The prevalence of hypertension was 28.48% (49/172) P Value = 2.72. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was 26.12% (45\172) P Value = 0.000002086. The prevalence of hyperglycemia, obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia was significantly high in males. The prevalence of CKD in Metabolic Syndrome is 30.23% which is quite high, and since the prevalence of CKD is rising in India, we need more studies to look into this aspect of Metabolic Syndrome.
Sep 28, 2022
This review article has tried to cover the similarities and differences between the two diseases. The immune dysregulation during COVID- 19 and Corticosteroid (CST) therapy poses a significant risk for new secondary infections or reactivation of existing quiescent infections, such as LTBI. The convergence of these two infections, especially in the developing world, is raising an alarm bell among health authorities. Can COVID-19 flare up Tuberculosis (TB)? Will the use of CST in the treatment of COVID-19 can cause a resurgence of TB? Do we need to change our outlook and use our resources in smart and diligent ways to minimize the impact of both diseases on our population? These are the questions that have been addressed in this article. Only time will tell how much success we have achieved in this regard; till then, let us work smartly.
Agriculture and Allied Sciences
Aug 29, 2022
Bamboo is a robust, relatively fast-growing, environmentally sustainable material used worldwide for centuries. It has the potential to be an extremely pleasing and a value alternative to more traditional materials like timber, as seen by numerous visually stunning modern structures. Approximately 212 insect pest species have been identified attacking bamboo, causing damage from seed to completed product. For the first time, Estigmena chinensis was seen destroying seven green-standing bamboo species in natural stands, including Gigantochloa manggog, Thyrsostachyus oliver, Bambusa balcooa, Schizostachyum dullooa, Dendrocalamus hamiltoni, Gigantochloa atroviolacea, and Bambusa polymorpha. Maximum attack incidence was observed in T. oliver (56.18%) in 2017 and minimum in G. atroviolacea (20.75%) in 2020. The maximum and minimum intensity of the attack was recorded in B. balcooa (3.16%) in 2018 and T. oliveri (1.08%) in 2017, respectively.
Original Research Article
Jul 25, 2022
Severe burn injury is more challenging to sustain life than a preburn status. The situation changes drastically in terms of energy demands/ expenditure and the great degree of susceptibility to infections due to the loss of amino acids. Glutamine stimulates the immune system and prevents catabolism. The bacterial translocation from the gut can be decreased by glutamine supplementation, thereby suppressing the inflammatory response. In acute burn injury, plasma and muscle glutamine depletion is observed to contribute to muscle wasting, weight loss, and infection. Patients with 20%–50% TBSA burns presenting within 24 hours of injury to the emergency department or outpatient department were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups randomly. In group 1 (Cases), all patients were given enteral glutamine supplementation at the dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day either orally or through a nasogastric tube started within 24 hours of injury. Group 2 (Control) had all the patients in whom enteral glutamine supplementation was not given. In both groups, blood analysis for total leucocyte count (TLC) and total serum proteins (TSP) was done upon admission. On Day 4, followed by analysis every fourth day, after that, till healing occurred or the patient was taken up for grafting. Blood and wound swab cultures were done on the third day of admission, then the first week, followed by weekly cultures for 4 weeks or till healing occurred or the patient was taken up for grafting. A total of 123 patients were studied. There was a decreasing trend in the mean values of the TLC and an increasing trend in TSP in both groups. The difference became statistically significant from Day 20 onwards. The pattern of wound cultures was found to be statistically significant in Week 3 and Week 4, whereas the difference in blood culture positivity among the groups was statistically significant in Week 3. We noted, in our study, that the glutamine supplementation to the early enteral nutrition increased the TSP levels and decreased the TLC, wound, and blood culture positivity rates in the study group. Glutamine supplementation can contribute to improved immunity and reduce burn wound sepsis and bacteremia. All these combined can lead to decreased morbidity, improved wound healing, and better outcomes with lesser costs.
Original Research Article
Jun 30, 2022
The cytological examinations of serous effusions have been well-accepted, and a positive diagnosis is often considered a definitive diagnosis. The study was planned to determine the diagnostic utility of fluid cytology by conventional smear and cell block method in pleural effusion. This was a hospital-based open cohort observational study conducted on patients diagnosed with pleural effusion. The study period was one year, and patients were recruited using a nonprobability sampling method. The fluid samples were subjected to the conventional smear examination, followed by cell block preparation. The overall morphologic details, cellularity, architecture, and nuclear and cytoplasmic details were studied and compared in conventional smear and cell block techniques. The samples were categorized as unsatisfactory, benign, suspicious for malignancy, or malignancy. The study was conducted on 113 pleural fluid samples. The study demonstrated that the cell block technique improved the cellular yield and established diagnosis in malignant effusions.
Original Research Article
May 31, 2022
The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of childhood severe vision impairment (SVI)and blindness in blind schools of Himachal Pradesh. This study was carried out in 3 blind schools for children (<16 years). The vision was categorized (WHO ICD 11 classification, 2018) and the cause of vision loss was determined. A total of 96 children were examined. The main cause of SVI and blindness was congenital ocular defects (microphthalmos, anophthalmos, and coloboma in 33.33% of children). The second major cause was retinal dystrophies (20.83%) followed by optic atrophy (11.45%). The preventable and treatable causes were present in 15.63% of children attributed to vitamin A deficiency, trauma, retinopathy of prematurity, and cataract. Congenital ocular defects constituted a major cause of SVI and blindness followed by retinal dystrophies and optic atrophy. The avoidable and preventable causes of SVI and blindness were present in 1/6th of children entailing the strengthening of comprehensive eye care services, blindness preventable, and rehabilitation programs.
Cancer and Oncology
Mar 30, 2022
Basal Cell Carcinoma.
Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin malignancy constituting 90% of eyelid tumors. Although it rarely metastasizes, it needs to be addressed with timely diagnosis and prompt treatment to avoid disfigurement of the tissues it invades. We report a case of 72 years old male with basal cell carcinoma of the lateral canthus. The patient was planned for excision of the lesion. Despite the excision of a large tumor involving the lateral canthus of the left eye (3*3 cm) and a large portion adjoining the upper and lower eyelids (1.5 cm approximately), we were able to restore the eyelid contour at the lateral canthus. There have been many proposed treatment modalities for basal cell carcinoma however excision biopsy remains the gold standard. This article outlines the etio-pathogenesis, clinical features, and various treatment modalities in the management of basal cell carcinoma.
Feb 28, 2022
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic has swamped the entire world. It can target any organ of the body and symptoms can vary from none or mild to even dreadful life-threatening respiratory distress or multisystem organ failure. A conglomeration of ocular symptoms and signs keep outpouring from various parts of the world ranging from conjunctivitis, uveitis to sight-threatening retinal vascular occlusions and calamitous rhino-orbital mucormycosis. Ocular manifestations can be attributed to either direct invasion by the virus or immune-mediated insult of the ocular tissues or triggering of coagulation cascade inducing prothrombotic state This article aims to delineate ocular manifestation of COVID-19 briefly which will be instrumental in early diagnosis, management, and timely vision restoration.