Nov 10, 2023
In this report, we assessed the accuracy of our previously developed method for simultaneous diagnosis of the four female cancers of the Breast, Endometrium, Cervix, and Ovary, in a clinical set-up with blinded protocol. Our test protocol combined global serum metabolome profiling wherein data was analyzed with machine learning algorithms to extract metabolite signatures that correlated with early-stage cancers. High-resolution mass spectrometry was employed to profile the serum metabolome and the resulting data were subjected to a pre-processing pipeline to obtain the data set. The data was then analyzed using artificial intelligence algorithms to identify early-stage cancer metabolic signatures. Overall, a total of 1000 blinded samples were analyzed by generating the serum metabolome profiles, followed by sequential algorithms for cancer detection and multiclass cancer type identification. Of these 1000 samples, 797 were identified as cancer positive, while, 203 samples were identified as cancer-negative. The multiclass algorithm was then applied to the 797 cancer-positive samples, to distinguish between samples that were from patients with either endometrial, breast, cervical, or ovarian cancer. After completion of the analysis, the sample code was broken to estimate the accuracy of the results. Concerning the identification of samples that were cancer-positive, the sensitivity obtained was 99.6% whereas the specificity was 100%. For the second stage of analysis which involves ‘tissue of origin’, all 107 breast cancer samples were correctly identified without any false calls. The accuracy for identification of cervical and ovarian cancers was between 95%- 96% for each, whereas 91% for endometrial cancer. Our present study validates the performance of our method for the early-stage detection of female-specific cancers in a clinical setting. Importantly, the algorithms for cancer detection and ‘tissue of origin’ prediction, which were initially trained using samples from Caucasian patients, retained the accuracy on samples from Indian women patients. This suggests that the performance of these algorithms was minimally influenced by variables such as ethnicity and race. Present results, therefore, also underscore the potential clinical utility of our method for early-stage diagnosis of cancers that are specific to females.
Sep 14, 2023
TNT (Trinitrotoluene) based buried landmines are explosive devices consisting of mainly 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (2,4,6-TNT), but also a 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) impurity. It is reported that some 2,4-DNT impurity vapors slowly leak through land mine covers and into the soil above them, making this compound a potential indicator for the presence of buried landmines. There are several approaches to identify the presence of chemicals in the environment, one of which is based on a microbial detection system. This approach was previously used to address the challenge of remotely identifying buried landmines by applying genetically engineered microbial whole cell biosensors capable of sensing trace signatures of the explosive compound 2,4,6-TNT and its degradation product, 2,4-DNT. Upon exposure to 2,4-DNT, the genetically engineered bacterial reporter strains, containing a genetic fusion between a sensing element for 2,4-DNT (yqjF gene promoter) and a fluorescence/ bioluminescence reporting element (GFP/luxCDABE genes), generate a measurable dose-dependent signal within the whole cell biosensor system. This biological component of a comprehensive remote sensing solution was significantly improved after several rounds of random mutagenesis to the yqjF promoter region using a prone-to-error PCR and selection of the best mutants. In the present project further significant improvements were obtained in signal intensity, response time, and in the limit of detection, following an additional round of random mutagenesis. Two new mutants, named A10 and C5, were identified. The new mutant’s present high induction levels both in terms of Ratio (sample/control) and delta (sample- control), making these strains more amenable to remote detection. To isolate a more sensitive mutant, the 3rd round of random mutagenesis library (about 1000 strains) was re-exposed to lower concentration of 2,4-DNT, but no better candidate was isolated. Possible alternative approaches to lower the detection threshold of the system, such as the use of permeability mutants, are now being tested.
Sep 08, 2023
The efficacy of human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hAMSCs) ovarian injection for improving ovarian function of POI (Premature ovarian failure) patients has been showed in some reports. However, the safety and efficacy of the hAMSCs vein injection remains unclear. In this study, we evaluate the safety and efficacy of hAMSCs intravenous injection in and SD rats, and to provide the evidence for clinical trials. The hAMSCs were transplanted three times in SD rats at low, medium and high doses, respectively. The animal behavior, biochemical and biophysical parameters were routinely monitored on a 2-month period posttransplantation, and the histopathologic examinations were also performed. Experiments on the acute toxicity, allergy test and hemolysis test showed that hAMSCs possesses good biocompatibility. Our results showed that maximum tolerated dose of hAMSCs in SD rats was 4.0 × 107 cells/kg. The maximum safe dose with three injections of hAMSCs in SD rats was 5.0 ×10 6 cells/kg. In addition, the results demonstrated that hAMSCs could restore the POI rat’s ovarian function after twice injected with 2.5 × 106 cells/kg or 5.0 × 10 6 cells/kg dose, which through improving the disturbed estrous cycle, hormone levels and ovarian lesion induced by pZP3. In conclusion, the preclinical results suggested that the transplantation of hAMSCs is safe and efficacious for SD rats at 5.0 × 10 6 cells/kg and lower doses.
Jul 28, 2023
Background and objectives: Blood pressure levels may vary because of genetic, ethnic, and socioeconomic factors. To date, there have been no large national studies in Eritrea on blood pressure. Therefore, we sought to establish a representative blood pressure reference interval for Health adult Eritreans Methods: The study included a sample of 942 healthy Eritrean individuals aged between 18 and 60 years, comprising 331 males and 611 females. The participants were selected from households located in the cities of Asmara, Keren, and Mandafara. Anthropometric measurements and clinical data were collected from each participant. Blood pressure was measured twice using a standardized procedure. Results: 942 healthy adults were included, 331 (35.1%) were males with an average age of 40, and 611 (64.9%) were females, with an average age of 41, with an age range of 18-60 years. Median blood pressure for males was 120/78 mmHg, while the Median blood pressure for female was 118/78 mmHg for female Conclusion: The values of blood pressure were similar to international values of blood pressure and there was significantly higher blood pressure in males than in females.
Jun 05, 2023
Antifungal resistance is a growing concern in the medical community, as fungal infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat. In this study, Falco species were used as novel models for studying antifungal resistance since aspergillosis, a fungal disease is common in falcons. The most isolated fungi in this study were A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, and A. terreus, all of which can cause aspergillosis in falcons. Isavuconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole had the lowest MICs among the drugs tested, suggesting that they may be effective treatment options. However, this study showed that 34% of the isolates were resistant to itraconazole, which is an increase from 21% in 2006. There is no resistance to voriconazole found in 2006 and 2011, but a 9% resistance rate was noted in 2022. Similarly, there is no resistance to posaconazole andisavuconazole was noticed in 2011, but theresistance of 4.7% and5.8%, respectively was noticed in 2022. Amphotericin B, which showed a 51% resistance rate in 2006, became even more resistant with an 80% rate in 2011, leading to its discontinuation from the treatment of falcons against aspergillosis. This study highlights a significant rise in antifungal resistance, which is a challenging problem in both falcon and human medicine.
May 29, 2023
Cancer is a complex disease that occurs when abnormal cells in the body begin to grow and divide uncontrollably. This can result in the formation of tumors or the spread of cancerous cells throughout the body, leading to a range of symptoms and potential health complications. There are many different types of cancer, each with its own unique characteristics, behaviors, and risk factors
May 16, 2023
The causes of endotheliopathy are multifactorial and trauma dependent, and the temporal mechanistic link that it has with Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy (ATC) has yet to be fully determinutesed. Therefore, we sought to define early characteristics and markers of endotheliopathy in two rat models, a time-course of acute lethal hemorrhage shock and polytrauma with hemorrhagic shock, to answer the following questions: (1) How soon can elevated biomarkers of endotheliopathy be detected in non-survivable (decompensated) hemorrhagic shock; (2) Does extended hemorrhage time and accumulated hemorrhage impact biomarker levels; and (3) Does the addition of polytrauma contribute to the further elevation of said biomarkers? In this study, we delineated a significant, acute elevation in end plasma levels of syndecan-1, thrombomodulin, and heparan sulfate, whose shedding patterns are a function of time as well as total hemorrhage volume vs. the addition of polytrauma. Additionally, we found that correlation of syndecan-1 and thrombomodulin to lactate levels and prothrombin times at trauma end revealed a potential for these markers to acutely predict downstream consequences of these trauma indications. Our results are of great relevance to the continued effort towards the identification and characterization of vascular dysfunction for early interventions in combat casualty care.
Mar 20, 2023
Recent preclinical data suggest that Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist (GLP1RA) possesses cardioprotective properties against the pathophysiology of Hypertension (HT). We sought to unravel the potential therapeutic application of GLP1RA in a clinically relevant large animal model of hypertensive Cardiomyopathy (hCMP). We used a combination of Angiotensin II (Ang II) and Deoxycorticosterone Acetate (DOCA) pellets to induce sustained HT status and establish hCMP in porcine model. Changes in cardiac echocardiography, invasive hemodynamic parameters, neurohumoral biomarkers and inflammation- related cytokines were investigated in 23 adult pigs, among which 6 were serving as control, 9 were induced with HT, and the remaining 8 were HT-induced with GLP1RA treatment. Eight weeks after the study initiated, HT pigs have developed sustained high Blood Pressure (BP) at both systole and diastole. Phenotype of hCMP has also become significant as impairment in systolic/diastolic function left ventricular remodeling and cardiac hypertrophy was determined by echocardiogram and invasive hemodynamics. Additionally, blood Norepinephrine (NE) content, venoarterial NE gradient and pro-inflammatory cytokines in HT pigs were increased. GLP1RA treatment halted the elevation in BP, left ventricular remodeling and cardiac hypertrophy development; preserved the left ventricular systolic/diastolic function; reduced the venoarterial NE gradient and decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in the hCMP pigs at 18 weeks. Our results demonstrate that GLP1RA treatment has a remarkable effect effect on reducing blood pressure and inflammation, and improving left ventricular function, thus indicating its potential therapeutic value in hypertension-induced heart failure in a large animal model of hCMP.
Mar 15, 2023
Colorectal Cancer (CRC), which is one of themost commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide, threatens human health. Since the pathologicalmechanism of CRC is not entirely understood, there are many challenges in preventing, diagnosing, and treating this disease. Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have recently gained attention due to their potential role in various stages of CRC formation, invasion, and progression, including regulation of molecular signaling pathways, apoptosis, autophagy, angiogenesis, tumor metabolism, immune responses, cell cycle, and Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). The role of long non-coding RNA Regulator of Reprogramming (ROR) in cellular reprogramming has been studied in this research. After extracting and preparing RNA from 100 cancerous and 100 non-cancerous tissues, the expression changes of Linc-ROR and all samples were analyzed with the Real time PCR technique. The statistical test results showed that Linc-ROR has a significant expression increase in tumor samples compared to non-tumor samples. According to the obtained results, the expression of the Linc- ROR gene is expected to be related to tumorigenesis and is very important in inhibiting apoptosis during cell stress.
Mar 07, 2023
Objective: This study explored the relationship between personality characteristics and mental health in front-line medical staff in hospitals to establish an objective basis and reference for developing targeted mental health education and formulating relevant policies. Methods: We used Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) to investigate the mental health status of 150 front-line medical staff in Zhejiang Province coping with the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Pneumonia 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Results: The staff’s average SCL-90 scores during the COVID-19 pandemic (overall, somatization, compulsion, depression, anxiety, hostility, terror, and psychosis) were significantly higher than for the general population. The primary influences (from high to low) were as follows: Experiencing any symptoms that might suggest COVID-19, fears of getting COVID-19 and spreading the infection to their families, whether they had received a physical examination recently, and whether they had completed higher education (all P<0.05). The higher-than-average levels of psychological distress among front-line medical staff dealing with COVID-19 are unsurprising, given the enormous physical and psychological pressures of pandemic conditions. However, supporting their mental health is critical to the public health response. Conclusion: Therefore, it is necessary to establish a targeted mental health promotion mechanism to alleviate the psychological pressure on the front-line medical staff, promote their physical and mental health, and better respond to the epidemic in China.
Mar 02, 2023
It is estimated that genetic factors are responsible for approximately 30%-60% of an individual’s personality. However, statistical analyses have yet to demonstrate a significant and consistent relationship between personality tests and genetic factors. Conversely, a significant portion of individuals in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan believe that there is a linkage between ABO blood type, which is determined genetically, and personality. This pilot study analyzed data from a large-scale survey (N=2,887) using a combination of traditional statistical methods and AI to examine this relationship. The results indicated the relationship between ABO blood type and self-reported personality traits on several single-question items, in accordance with expected outcomes. These findings suggest that this relationship may extend beyond ABO blood type and personality to encompass other inherited characteristics. The influence of the level of interest on personality and was also discussed.
Mar 01, 2023
Background: The main activity of the skin is to create a protective barrier against damage. Loss of the skin due to injury or disease and failure to regenerate the affected area may result in disability, infection, or even death. We conducted the animal study to evaluation of the effectiveness of nano-hydroxyapatite particles in wound healing. Method: This animal study performed in Isfahan university of medical science animal lab. Experiments were performed on 30 wistar in 5 groups. Biopsies 5 mm × 5 mm were obtain of abdominal, and were transferred to the cell culture laboratory into the Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS). The cell proliferation was determined using the colorimetric MTS assay. The type and approach of this animal study is to create a deep skin wound and try to treat the wound with drug (nano hydroxyapatite 10%, nano hydroxyapatite 40%, combination of nickle ion with nanohydroxyapatite 10%, and 40%) intervention on an animal model of rat. Macroscopic evaluation and pathological examination were done. For pathological and histological examination of the wound, sampling was done on the seventh and fourteenth days after ulcer induction. All continuous and categorical data are presented as mean ± Standard Deviation (SD) and frequency (percentage), respectively. Paired sample T-test and repeated measure Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), chi-squared test was used. Results: During this study, MTS assay was carried out to evaluate the proliferation of mice fibroblast on the gelatin without hydroxyapatite, and with 10%, 40% hydroxyapatite after 1 day, 2 days and 3 days of culture. Significant enhancement of cell proliferation was observed in nano HA10%, 40% and nano HA10% with nickel in comparison when the cells seeded on gelatin and HA10%. The best result was shown in 24 hours after seeding the cells in gelatin in comparison with 48 hours and 72 hours. Indeed, after 48 hours and 72 hours, the cell proliferation on gelatin decreased. In evaluation of wound area with image j soft ward, the wound area between 3rd day, 7th day and 14th day of treatment after wound induction there were no significant difference between groups. In microscopic study and analysis for evaluation and comparing wound length with the michrome camera and mosaic soft ward, there were no significant relation in time (p1=0.77). There is a difference is close to significant between the groups (p2=0.065). There was no significant difference between time and group (p3=0.323). In day 14 the wound length between groups had significant difference (p4=0.049). Conclusion: In conclusion, hydroxyapatites and its combination with nickle ion have significant effect on wound healing and cell proliferation.
Feb 28, 2023
Introduction: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that targets the CD4+ of human T-lymphocyte cells of the immune system. The weakening immune system causes susceptibility to multiple infective diseases and cancers. This study is aimed to determinant the knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS and to identify the associated factors of the HIV/AIDS knowledge among the urban and rural Malaysian young people. Methods: Data was collected using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) method. HIV knowledge was assessed using the UNGASS indicators, which contain five questions on HIV prevention and transmission. There were two questions regarding the association between HIV transmission with sexual practice and behaviour. The remainder was one question, each related to insect bite, meal sharing, and knowledge about the physical appearance of someone with HIV infection. Respondents who correctly answer all five questions were considered to have adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Results: The result from a questionnaire revealed the prevalence of the young people HIV/AIDS knowledge in urban area was 14.7% (95% CI: 9.96, 21.28) whereas in rural area was 10.9% (95% CI: 6.83, 16.89) in 2020. The results revealed significant difference of misconceptions on healthy-looking person have HIV where urban was 71.7% (95% CI: 66.46, 76.37) and rural was 59.8% (95% CI: 56.05, 63.41). Furthermore, there are significant difference of misconceptions on person get HIV by sharing food with someone who is infected whereas urban was 64.8% (95% CI: 60.48, 68.98) while rural was 52.6% (95% CI: 48.67, 56.50). Conclusion: The findings from this survey have important implications for the development of primary HIV/AIDS prevention programs and HIV educational campaigns to increase knowledge and dispel misconceptions about HIV
Feb 20, 2023
Purpose: The issue of quality in healthcare services depends heavily on the interactions between the service process; the customer as well as the health care providers. Thus, a question arises whether the perceived quality of medical personnel will have any impact on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic containment. Methods: This study triangulated in its methodology. Using quantitative (questionnaires) and qualitative In-Depth Interviews (IDIs) to elicit data on enrollees’ perception, published articles on COVID-19 were reviewed to describe the plausible impact. Using a simple random and convenient sampling techniques, a total of 252 questionnaires and 9 in-depth interviews were used to elicit data from selected respondents across 9 healthcare facilities within the 3 senatorial districts, in Lagos, Nigeria. Results: 69.8% of the respondents agreed that various medical personnel’s were involved in the execution of their treatment, 69.8% agreed that their medical history was factored into their treatment and 35.3% were not motivated by the attitude of the medicalpersonnel’s. The medical personnel’s quality rating weighed 37.7%, fairly over 30.6% negative perception. IDI responses showed personnel’s quality was rated over attributes considered significant to the individual enrollees. Chi-square result shows significant correlation from the group comparisons existing between enrollees’ quality of medical personnel’s and enrollees’ perception (P<0.01, χ2 (16)=82.265) and the Spearman’s correlation was positive at .219. COVID-19 reviews revealed evidence of an ongoing and increasing shortage of skilled health workforce and overwhelmed human resources. Conclusion: Enrollees provided insights into how and what they considered significant in personnel’s quality assessment, making for a relevant recommendations that medical personnel’s should be educated on the relevance of their expertise in the attainment of patient health outcomes. Medical personnel’s quality should be prioritized at all times, not just during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Feb 07, 2023
Dangke is one of the dairy products in Indonesia using raw materials for buffalo milk and cow’s milk, the clumping process uses the help of the enzyme papain as a protein hydrolysis agent taken from papaya fruit sap. Dangke has a nutritional content rich in proteins, fats, macro and micronutrients. This Literature Study aims to examine the various benefits of dangke on health. Article searches using electronic databases include google scholar, SINTA indexed journals and SCOPUS published in 2012-2022. The search uses several keywords: Dangke, Dangke benefits, and Dangke intervention. Obtained 7 articles, 5 articles came from national journals while 2 of them came from international journals. From the results of the article search, it can be concluded that Dangke has a positive effect on health, Dangke has various types of lactic acid bacteria that have the potential to be probiotics, anti-cholesterol and antibacterials that can inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as E.coli and S.aureus, besides that the consumption of Dangke can increase calcium and phosphate levels in saliva, form remineralization of tooth enamel, improve the nutritional status of children and can significantly increase hemoglobin levels in pregnant women in Trimester 2 with Anemia.